ENTRY, WRIT OF. The name of a writ issued for the purpose of obtaining
possession of land from one who has entered unlawfully, and continues in
possession. This is a mere possessor action, and does not decide the right
2. The writs of entry were commonly brought, where the tenant or possessor of the land entered lawfully; that is, without fraud or force; 13 Edw. I. c. 25; although sometimes they were founded upon an entry made by wrong. The forms of these writs are very various, and are adapted to the, title and estate of the demandant. Booth enumerates and particularly discusses twelve varieties. Real Actions, pp. 175-200. In general they contain an averment of the manner in which the defendant entered. At the common law these actions could be brought only in the degrees, but the Statute of Marlbridge, c. 30; Rob. Dig. 147, cited as c. 29; gave a writ adapted to cases beyond the degrees, called a writ of entry in the post. Booth, 172, 173. The denomination of these writs by degrees, is derived from the circumstance that estates are supposed by the law to pass by degrees from one person to another, either by descent or purchase. Similar to this idea, or rather corresponding with it, are the gradations of consanguinity, indicated by the very common term pedigree. But in reference to the writs of entry, the degrees recognized were only two, and the writs were quaintly termed writs in the per, and writs in the per and cui. Examples of these writs are given in Booth on R. A. pp. 173, 174. The writ in the, per runs thus: "Command A, that be render unto B, one messuage, &c., into which he has not entry except (per) by &c. The writ in the per and cui contains another gradation in the transmission of the estate, and read thus: Command A, that he render, &c., one messuage, into which he hath not entry but (per) by C, (cui) to whom the aforesaid B demised it for a term of years, now expired," &c. 2 Institute, 153; Co. Litt. b, 239, a. Booth, however, makes three degrees, by accounting the estate in the per, the second degree. The difference is not substantial. If the estate had passed further, either by descent or conveyance, it was said to be out of the degrees, and to such cases the writ of entry on the. statute of Marlbridge, only, was applicable. 3 Bl. Com. 181, 182; Report of Com. to Revise Civil Code of Penna. January 15, 1835, p. 85. Vide Writ of entry.
ERROR, WRIT OF. A writ of error is one issued for a superior to an inferior court, for the purpose of bringing up the record and correcting an alleged error committed in the trial in the court below. But it cannot deliver the body from prison. Bro. Abr. Acc. pl. 45. The judges to whom the writ is directed have no power to return the record nisi judicium inde redditum sit. Nor can it be brought except on the final judgment. See Metcalf's Case, 11 Co. Rep. 38, which is eminently instructive on this subject. Vide Writ of Error.
EXCOMMUNICATIO CAPIENDO, WRIT OF, Eng. eccl. law. A writ issuing out of chancery, founded on a bishop's certificate that the defendant had been excommunicated, which writ is returnable in the king's bench. F. N. B. 62, 64, 65 Bac. Ab. Excommunication, E. See Statutes 3 Ed. I. c. 15; 9 Ed. II. c. 12; 2 & 3 Ed. VI. c. 13; 5 & 6 Ed. VI c. 4; 5 Eliz. c. 23; 1 H.V. c. 5; also Cro. Eliz. 224, 6,80; Cro. Car. 421; Cro. Jac. 567; 1 Vent. 146; 1 Salk. 293, 294, 295.
INQUIRY, WRIT OF. A writ of inquiry is one issued where a judgment has been entered in a case sounding in damages, without any particular amount being ascertained; this writ is for the purpose of ascertaining the amount to which the plaintiff is entitled. Vide Writ Of Inquiry.
JURE, WRIT OF, Engl. law. The name of a writ commanding the defendant to show by what right he demands common of pasture in the land of the complainant, who claims to have a fee in the same. F. N. B. 299.
MESNE, WRIT of. The name of an ancient writ, which lies when: the lord paramount distrains on the tenant paravail; the latter shall have a writ of mesne against the lord who is mesne. F. N. B. 316.
MONSTRAVERUNT, WRIT OF, Eng. law. A writ which lies for the tenants of ancient demesne who hold by free charter, and not for those tenants who hold by copy of court roll, or by the rod, according to the custom of the manor. F. N. B. 31.
RIGHT, WRIT OF. Breve de recto. Vide Writ of light.
SECOND SURCHARGE, WRIT OF. The name of a writ issued in England against a commoner who has a second time surcharged the common. 3 Bl. Com. 239.