gradation

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Related to ablaut: metathesis, umlaut, suppletion
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In the first place, the scope of zero derivation is drastically widened with respect to the zero ablaut grade of Proto-Germanic, which, in nouns, is restricted to -a-stems (gecor "decision"), -ja-stems, -to-stems, -VCV-stems, -(s)T-r//a-stems (rifter "sickle"), -o-stems, -Co-stems, i-stems (bryce "fraction"), -ti-stems (flyht "flight"), -tu-stems (purst "thirst"), -Cu-stems and n-stems (wiga "fighter") (Mailhammer 2008, 286).
Adjectives are not observed to pluralize by other plural patterns like the Vb infix, attachment of a VC template or ablaut modulo to the nouns they describe.
The framework of alternations as put forward by Kastovsky (1968) constitutes a double synthesis: firstly, of contrasts motivated by ablaut and by other phenomena and, secondly, of synchronic and diachronic facts.
2001, Ablaut als Umlaut im Ostjakischen: Prinzipien und Grundzuge der lautgeschichtlichen Betrachtung.--Fremd und eigen.
This mechanism can be combined with ablaut (Hunzib koro 'hand') and various oblique markers (Hinuq kwezey 'hand').
(32) la "the upper, high" (old, henceforth obsolete place stem in classical times remains only a case suffix) and lha "God" properly "the High" He correctly places the ablaut form here:
Outras implementacoes dizem respeito as oracoes encaixadas, a maior complexidade no uso das construcoes com a copula, a utilizacao do ablaut nos verbos irregulares e a metafonia nos verbos regulares.
(83) Likewise, Machek, emphasizing the presence of ablaut in Lithuanian, rejects the notion that Slavic vlad- represents a borrowing from Germanic.
Beside the root fac-, there occurs an ablaut variant fec- seen in the perfect system: fec- '(I) have done', etc.
Price, A History of Ablaut in the Strong Verbs from Caxton to the End of the Elizabethan Period, Bonner Studien zur englischen Philologie, 3 (1910), 47.
Next, those contrasts due to the ablaut of the verb are put aside.
Though of course the phenomenon of ablaut or root vowel alternation clearly deserves deep reflection in this respect, it will be enough for me to suggest in this paper that regular verbs are ones that arguably set the line for the morphological process of computation taking place in core or narrow syntax, whereas irregular verbs would lend themselves to the same process of V-to-T (or lack of V-to-T) as applied to regular verbs.