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Because the soluble fraction of the particles may better penetrate the alveolar-capillary membrane and be in contact with the pulmonary vessels than the whole particles when inhaled, we determined whether the soluble fraction of UPs could activate ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK.
Moreover, when the researchers exposed fat cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the bacterial components that activates TLR4, the cells began to make a related receptor, TLR2, and to synthesize secreted immune molecules such as interleukin-6.
Maloney and Waxman (1999) showed that MEHP activates mouse and human PPAR[alpha] and [gamma] in a COS-1 cell-based transient trans-activation assay.
An agent that does not activate AP-1 or ND[kappa]B is unlikely to act as a tumor promoter.
Several environmental agents activate MAP kinases to cause cellular stress and cytotoxic responses, including bacterial products (such as lipopolysaccharide; LPS), pesticides, certain transition metals, and UV radiation (11-13).
The demonstration of a functional PPAR in human breast cancer cell lines that can bind specifically to a PPRE indicates that peroxisome proliferators may transcriptionally activate peroxisome proliferator-regulated genes in human breast epithelial cells (53).
The more specific you can make the chemical you're going to activate,' he says, "the more specific you can make the treatment.

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