Intoxication

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Intoxication

A state in which a person's normal capacity to act or reason is inhibited by alcohol or drugs.

Generally, an intoxicated person is incapable of acting as an ordinary prudent and cautious person would act under similar conditions. In recognition of this factor, the law may allow intoxication to be used as a defense to certain crimes. In many jurisdictions, intoxication is a defense to specific-intent crimes. The underlying rationale is that the intoxicated individual cannot possess the requisite mental state necessary to establish the offense.

Other jurisdictions recognize it as a defense to general-intent crimes as well. For example, although rape is commonly considered a general-intent crime, there are states in which extreme intoxication may be alleged as a defense. It is unlikely, however, that the defense will be successful in such cases absent proof that the defendant was so intoxicated that he or she could not form the intent to have intercourse.

In Homicide cases, intoxication is relevant to negate premeditation and deliberation necessary for first-degree murder. When the defense is successfully interposed, it will reduce a charge of first-degree murder to second-degree murder.

When a person is forced to consume an intoxicant against his or her will, the person is involuntarily intoxicated. In most jurisdictions, the defense of involuntary intoxication is treated similarly to the Insanity Defense. For example, an intoxicated person who cannot distinguish right from wrong at the time of committing the wrongful act would have a valid defense.

intoxication

n. 1) the condition of being drunk as the result of drinking alcoholic beverages and/or use of narcotics. In the eyes of the law this definition may differ depending on the situation to which it is applied. 2) In drunk driving (DUI, DWI) the standard of intoxication varies by state between .08 and .10 alcohol in the bloodstream, or a combination of alcohol and narcotics which would produce the same effect even though the amount of alcohol is below the minimum. 3) In public drunkenness the standard is subjective, meaning the person must be unable to care for himself, be dangerous to himself or others, be causing a disturbance, or refuse to leave or move along when requested. 4) Intoxication as a defense in a criminal case in which the claim is made by the defendant that he/she was too intoxicated to form an intent to commit the crime or to know what he/she was doing, the amount of intoxication is subjective but higher than for drunk driving. There is also the question if the intoxication was an intentional aforethought to the crime ("I wanted to get drunk so I had the nerve to kill her.") Thus, unintentional intoxication can show lack of capacity to form an intent and thus reduce the possible level of conviction and punishment, as from voluntary (intentional) manslaughter down to involuntary (unintentional but through a wrongful act) manslaughter. However, in vehicular manslaughter, the intoxication is an element in the crime, whether getting drunk was intentional or not, since criminal intent was not a factor. (See: vehicular manslaughter)

See: dipsomania, inebriation, passion
References in periodicals archive ?
All of them presented as acute abdomen due to intestinal obstruction.
The parameters such as the demographics of the patient, the presenting symptoms of acute abdomen, comorbidities, investigations, treatment modalities were noted.
This patient is a 16-year old boy with a history of nonpalpable testicle who presented with signs of acute abdomen.
Shakiba, "Spontaneous uterine perforation due to pyometra presenting as acute abdomen," Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.
The challenging point in such cases is to consider tubal pregnancy as a possible diagnostic option in a second trimester pregnant patient complaining of acute abdomen with or without vomiting, particularly if the patient is still hemodynamic stable.
15-21 Peritonitis is quite common cause of acute abdomen in general surgical wards.
They explain triage and assessment; monitoring the patient; vascular access; shock and intravenous fluid therapy; blood gas, acid-base analysis, and electrolyte abnormalities; analgesia and anesthesia; practical laboratory techniques; techniques for oxygen supplementation; nursing dyspneic, cardiac, acute abdomen, urinary tract, poisoned, trauma, ophthalmology, and reproductive conditions; small animal critical care and hospital nutrition; cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation; and nursing considerations.
Examination revealed features of an acute abdomen with the clinical suspicion of a bowel perforation.
RSH frequently presents with acute abdomen in the setting of anticoagulation or trauma, but various presentations have been reported.
There are only two reports in the literature on duodenal perforation possibly caused by Ascaris presenting as an acute abdomen [1, 2].