This is seen by the large "batch" and "family" variances and small additive genetic variances
at ages 10, 21, and 27 mo (Table 3).
Therefore, the similarities in twins reared together showed similar phenotypic intelligence due to additive genetic variance
to the tune of 89.80%.
Intensity of selection (i) and additive genetic variance
([V.sub.A]) of development time = log(days oviposition to adult eclosion) by sex in each population (Pop.; from Table 1) of W.
In breeding of population of open pollination, the additive genetic variance
contribute significantly in answer of selection of population.
Epistasis and the effects of the founder events on the additive genetic variance
. Evolution 42:441-454.
The total heritability is a function of the direct additive genetic variance
[Mathematical Expression Omitted], the maternal additive genetic variance
[Mathematical Expression Omitted], and the direct-maternal additive genetic covariance ([[Sigma].sub.[A.sub.o][A.sub.m]]) relative to the total phenotypic variance [Mathematical Expression Omitted].
The additive genetic variance
of each marker is given by [mathematical expression not reproducible] with i = 1, 2, ..., n.
Geweke Trrit Model 2.sub.a] [h.sup.2] (p-value) MCE BCS (grade Linear 0.20 0.29 0.04 0.002 1 to 5) Threshold 2.23 0.11 0.03 0.001 MRE (grade Linear 0.12 0.12 0.00 0.001 1 to 6) Threshold 0.11 0.03 0.00 0.000 Trrit Model CI DIC BF BCS (grade Linear 0.00-0.36 956.44 0.45 1 to 5) Threshold 0.00-0.14 412.00 * MRE (grade Linear 0.00-0.23 1,176.10 0.62 1 to 6) Threshold 0.00-0.04 706.74 * [[sigma].sup.2.sub.a], additive genetic variance
; MCE, Monte Carloerror; CI, confidence interval of heritability; DIC, information criterion of deviance; BF, bayes factor.
Degree of dominance >one and ratio of GCA over SCA variance <unity showed that dominant genetic variance was larger than additive genetic variance
for studied characters (Fellahi et al., 2013).
Heritability was estimated as the ratio of the additive genetic variance
to total phenotypic variance; and repeatability, as the ratio of the sum of the additive genetic variance
plus permanent environmental variance to phenotypic variance, as described by Falconer and Mackay (2001), according Equation 4 and 5:
In a recurrent selection program that recombined only five lines, Guzman and Lamkey (2000) found no significant decrease in additive genetic variance
for maize grain yield after five generations.
Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain how the additive genetic variance
of traits might be affected (Hoffmann and Parsons 1991).