While the cold effect in part may be mediated by IL-4 and its receptor IL-4Ra in the adipocyte precursors, in mature adipose cells
a reduction in the IL4Ra is observed and probably this effect may include diverse mediators, including IL-33 and Met-enkephalin [47, 48].
In previous studies, performed by our group, primary human adipose cells
were evaluated and observed that a reduction on temperature from 37[degrees]C to 30[degrees]C during a period may resemble a cold induction with an increase of thermogenic proteins, UCP-1 and PGC-1[alpha].
TNF[alpha] acts as a paracrine mediator to enhance insulin resistance in adipose cells
. Furthermore, it is an important mediator of several cardiovascular events, such as heart failure and atherosclerosis .
Generally, the adipose tissue is composed in large part of adipose cells
and the adipose cells
could be divided into white adipose cells
and brown adipose cells
that differ in the microscopic morphologies and functions (Saito 1997).
We found that c-Kit + ASCs had an intrinsic proangiogenic capability and stimulated IL-3 release, which could promote the proliferation of 4T1 breast cancer cells or the growth of mature adipose cells
. However, the tumor microenvironment in solid tumors is hypoxic, and c-Kit has been reported to participate in the formation of the tumor vasculature via promoting HIF-1[alpha]-mediated VEGF expression [46,47].
On the other hand, the capillary number was determined in relation with the number of adipose cells
in both tissues at a magnification of 40x (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)).
On histopathological examination of the resected tumor, the tumor consisted of plump to thin spindle cells growing in a bundle shape (Figure 4(a)) and adipose cells
Short-term exercise enhances insulinstimulated GLUT-4 translocation and glucose transport in adipose cells
. J Appl Physiol 1998; 85: 2106-2111, doi: 10.1097/00005768-199705001-00118.
In this first clinical application, Renevia will be used as a delivery matrix for autologous adipose cells
to treat the facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV, concluded the company.
Identification and characterization of leptin-containing intracellular compartment in rat adipose cells
The angiomyolipoma was composed of mature adipose cells
, smooth muscle cells and blood vessel.
Subcutaneous adipose cells
, which demonstrate the dynamic regeneration parallel to the activation of skin stem cell, are necessary and sufficient to drive follicular stem cell activation and support lanugo growth .