adversarial

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adversarial

having or involving opposing parties or interests in a legal contest. Very broadly speaking, the Anglo-American systems prefer a system of justice where the result is obtained through the battle between the opponents without the seeking of absolute truth being a part of the process. Traditionally this meant that the judge was a referee rather than a participant and that the parties had control of the process. Recent trends are to at least have judges manage cases and seek to identify issues in dispute and to promote ever greater disclosure or discovery of material in the hands of parties and elsewhere. This system contrasts in theory with an INQUISITORIAL SYSTEM.
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On the other hand, too much perturbation takes the perturbed example far across the decision boundary, the classifier does not classify it correctly, but the excessively perturbed example appears as nonsense or rubbish (Goodfellow, Shlens, and Szegedy 2014) to a human who can easily discern it as an adversarially perturbed example.
Paglen's image-set selections for "Adversarially Evolved Hallucinations" paralleled the antic taxonomies of the Borgesian encyclopedia that Michel Foucault recounts at the start of The Order of Things (1966)--categories organized according to a shattering logic that he hails as "the stark impossibility of thinking that." "A Study of Invisible Images" makes clear that automated vision might now be constructing a new order of things around us.
Finality principles would become meaningless if an adversarially determined issue were final only if the equities were against revising it." Id.
(45) But an adversarially trained, adversarially minded prosecutor is a poor substitute for a defense lawyer, whose job is to push back, or a judge, whose job is to probe skeptically the weaknesses of each side's case.
In the philosophy of language, the phrase "metalinguistic negotiation" (51) is used to refer to the process by which the meaning of words like "originalism" and phrases like "living constitutionalism" are contested (adversarially) or negotiated (cooperatively).
Waldron therefore urges us to recognize that the rule of law tolerates that "we argue over them adversarially, we use our sense of what is at stake in their application to license a continual process of argument back and forth, and we engage in elaborate interpretive exercises about what it means to apply them faithfully as a system to the cases that come before us" (ibid).
10-11) Acknowledging that our culture conspires against collaborative thinking by conditioning us to think adversarially, and pointing to Deborah Tannen's (1998) notion of an argument culture, Mezirow (2000) adds that "Discourse is not based on winning arguments; it centrally involves finding agreement, welcoming difference, 'trying on' other points of view, identifying the common in the contradictory, tolerating the anxiety implicit in the paradox, searching for synthesis, and reframing" (p.
11.48) even works to disguise the 'missing' lines of 11.44-7, allowing the sense to flow more naturally between lines 10 and 11 as Odysseus adversarially takes up his sword against the Underworld's spirits.
These efforts are combined adversarially, "so that a player's probability of winning is increasing in her or his effort but is decreasing in the efforts of all the adversaries" [10].
Diez, for his part, emphasises the existence of a decently hidden branch of Modernism polarly opposed to the received image of this movement and adversarially working within it.
For example, the expectation that women politicians will bring consensual styles to political life actually helps to strengthen the double-bind that operates against women in politics: if they behave adversarially they are seen as unfeminine, yet if they are not combative they are seen as ineffectual.
But even Alan Siporin continued to divide those groups adversarially, ignoring or failing to recognize that all us adults who bike that stretch are also drivers, many of whom drive it more than they ride it.