Alter

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TO ALTER. To change. Alterations are made either in the contract itself, or in the instrument which is evidence of it. The contract may at any time be altered with the consent of the parties, and the alteration may be either in writing or not in writing.
     2. It is a general rule that the terms of a contract under seal, cannot be changed by a parol agreement. Cooke, 500; 3 Blackf. R. 353; 4 Bibb. 1. But it has been decided that an alteration of a contract by specialty, made by parol, makes it all parol. 2 Watts, 451; 1 Wash. R. 170; 4 Cowen, 564; 3 Harr. & John. 438; 9 Pick. 298; 1 East, R. 619; but see 3 S.& R. 579.
     3. When the contract is, in writing, but not under seal, it may be varied by parol, and the whole will make but one agreement. 9 Cowen, 115; 5.N. H. Rep. 99; 6 Harr. & John, 38; 18 John. 420; 1 John. Cas. 22; 5 Cowen, 606; Pet. C. C. R. 221; 1 Fairf. 414.
     4. When the contract is evidenced by a specialty, and it is altered by parol, the whole will be considered as a parol agreement. 2 Watt 451; 9 Pick. 298. For alteration of instruments see Erasure; Interlineation. See, generally, 7 Greenl. 76, 121, 394; 15 John. 200; 2 Penna. R. 454.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Critics of book altering say the practice is disrespectful and wonder whether all the books being used truly are ready for the scrap heap.
"With other mutations, we are altering a macromolecule.
Because phthalates can cross the placenta, exposure to the developing fetus during critical points in development is also a concern, especially if DEHP is altering receptor-mediated differentiation pathways.
1988), and most likely due to VMAT inhibition, may further contribute to reductions in de novo synthesis of DA by altering the affinity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) for its cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (Cooper et al.
"What I think endocrine disrupters have done is show us that they-and presumably other toxicants as well-can exert their damage by mimicking, blocking, or altering these natural signaling pathways," says McLachlan, who heads the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities in New Orleans.
Thus, arsenic may represent a new class of endocrine disruptors that may act by altering downstream receptor function rather than by direct competition of hormone binding.
Effectively converting A cells is trickier than altering B cells, because about 75 percent of people with type A blood have two kinds of sugar chains on their cells.
The presentations discussed four major aspects of calcium channels that are relevant for understanding their roles in genetic and environmental neurologic disorders: the genetics and molecular biology of channel structure; interactions between calcium channels and intracellular signaling pathways; the effects of toxicants on calcium channel function, both through direct interactions with channel subunits and by altering intracellular signaling; and the genetics, molecular biology, and physiology of inherited disorders caused by mutations in the genes encoding calcium channel subunits or from autoimmune disorders caused by the generation of antibodies against subunits of those proteins.
The researchers should do additional studies to verify that the experimental conditions are not altering cell function or protein synthesis in unexpected ways, Alkon suggests.
Several programs report promising results in animals merely by altering the amino acid composition of the diet.
toxicants," including those capable of altering DNA, Bercz concludes.