crest

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Comparative evaluation of implant designs: influence of diameter, length, and taper on strains in the alveolar crest. Clin Oral Implants Res.
Caption: Figure 3: The reconstruction, partition, and extraction of the alveolar bone around the mesial root: (a) the reconstruction of the crown and mesial root of the upper first molar; (b) generation of the cylinder around the root; (c) partition of the cylinder with the alveolar crest plane; (d) division of the cylinder into the mesial and distal sides according to the direction of the orthodontic load; (e) reconstruction of the alveolar bone within semicylinder filters.
Anatomical landmarks, CEJ, restorative margins, alveolar crest, furcation fornix, and root apicies, were identified on the radiographs.
In case 1, decoronation was performed when the patient was 15 years old (during pubertal growth), to take full advantage of the several millimeters increase in the vertical bone level and the preservation of the buccopalatal width of the alveolar crest. Surgical intervention for decoronation demands excellent management of children behavior especially in young children, that is, case 2 (8 years old); nevertheless this type of procedure does not differ excessively from other therapeutic options in terms of patients' perceived anxiety or pain [36, 37].
Among the thick frenulum, 50% (n=4) had a fixation on the middle third/sublingual caruncles and 50% (n=4) between the middle third and the apex/inferior alveolar crest.
A 50-year-old female patient was referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry Istanbul University for evaluation of the right edentulous maxillary alveolar crest. Other than hypertension, the patient had no significant medical history, and no pathology was observed during the extraoral examination.
Eventually proposed model of the plane-strain can be used to evaluate strains and stresses in the PDL regions which are far from the apex and the alveolar crest. The obtained results can be used to determine magnitude of a load for orthodontic tooth movement resulting in the optimal stresses [29], as well as to simulate bone remodeling on the basis of changes of stresses and strains in the PDL during orthodontic movement [4, 23].
Also the bur is used to reduce the root to at least 3mm below the level of the buccal and lingual alveolar crest.
On the mesial surfaces of the second molars in each rat, the following histometric measurements were performed: the distance of the CEJ to the coronal level of epithelial cells (JEc) (attachment loss); the distance of the CEJ to the alveolar bone crest (ABC) (the alveolar crest bone level); the distance of the apical level of epithelial cells (JEa) to the ABC (the CT attachment); and the region of collagen deposited connective tissue in a zone of 0.14 m[m.sup.2] of sub-epithelial gingiva on the mesial surface of the second maxillary molar in each rat as that in our previous study (Cheng et al., 2010).
(2) Location of MF was identified by using following parameters: (i) Distance between symphysis menti (S) and anterior margin of MF; (ii) Distance between posterior margin of MF and posterior border of ramus (PB); (iii) Distance between alveolar crest X) and superior margin of MF, (iv) Distance between inferior margin of MF and lower border of the body of mandible (Y).
The conclusions drawn after reviewing the relevant literature on immediate dental implantation are: (1) Implants placed into fresh extraction sockets have a high rate of survival, ranging between 93.9 and 100%; (2) implants must be placed 3-5 mm beyond the apex in order to gain a maximal degree of stability; (3) implants should be placed as close as possible to the alveolar crest level (0-3 mm); (4) there is no consensus regarding the need for gap filling and the best grafting material; (5) the use of membrane does not imply better results - on the contrary, membrane exposure may carry complications in its wake; and (6) the absolute need for primary closure remains to be established.