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Radioimmunoassay A test to detect antigen-antibody reactions in which one of the reactants is tagged radioactively.
The specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction is astounding; it is possible to measure picomolar concentrations of proteins, peptides, and haptens in the presence of a 10 million-fold excess of closely related molecules, e.g., [alpha]-fetoprotein in the presence of albumin (7).
The immuno-PCR assay is similar in operation to the ELISA; both detect an antigen-antibody reaction. However, instead of an enzyme conjugated to an antibody, as is used in ELISA, immuno-PCR uses a reporter DNA target that is amplified to diagnostic concentrations by PCR (20, 21).
An antigen-antibody reaction occurs when latex particles, which bind to antigens, are mixed with a fluid containing the antibody.
Nonspecific reactions attributable to the peculiar characteristics of seminal fluid interfere with the measurement of the rate signal generated by the antigen-antibody reaction. Indeed, PEG in the buffer, which is basically used to enhance the precipitation of antigen-antibodies complexes, is presumably reacting with various components of biological samples and generating light-scattering particles independently from any specific immunological reaction.