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The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for the treatment of CL are intralesional or systemic antimonials, according to the species and the clinical features.11
Dieter [32] also did not observe any changes in B6C3F1 mice bodyweight after intraperitoneal administration of trivalent antimonial at different doses (0,6, 13, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg) for 16 days.
Heat therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis elicits a systemic cytokine response similar to that of antimonial (Glucantime) therapy.
Chemotherapy to treat leishmaniasis has been based on the parenteral administration of pentavalent antimonials for more than 60 years [9].
Another major problem is the high toxicity of drugs such as some antimonials used in treatments for all three forms of the disease.
Machado et al., "Successful treatment of refractory cutaneous leishmaniasis with GM-CSF and antimonials," The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.
Pentavalent antimonials (meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate), discovered and marketed since 1940s, remain the rst-line treatment for all clinical forms of leishmaniasis, despite the variable therapeutic response and the growing concern of treatment failure.
The current antimonial drugs used for the treatment of leishmaniasis are not totally safe and active because of increasing variation and adaptibilty in the microbes.
Species-specific antimonial sensitivity in Leishmania is driven by post-transcriptional regulation of AQP1.
In India, 98% of long term cure has been obtained in both antimonial unresponsive and previously untreated patients with conventional
Conclusion: The devise was a convenient safe non-toxic and effective treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis at a fraction of the cost of standard antimonial treatment.
GTM or meglumine antimoniate is a synthetic anti-leishmanial drug based on pentavalent antimonial (Sbv) that have been clinically recommended as first line drug to treat the infections by L.