Unfortunately, their symptoms are dismissed as an anxiety reaction
since there is an identifiable stress trigger.
are characterized by physical and autonomic changes with autonomic function a reflection of psychological state (Shinba et al.
Such physical manifestations of stress and anxiety reactions
have been given a number of labels suggestive of a physical cause - for example during the American Civil War there was irritable heart and in the 19th century, railway spine.
In light of these reports, temporal considerations were taken into account to improve the accuracy and validity of the assessments of individuals' test anxiety reactions
The STAI was developed to measure transitory-emotional and relatively stable anxiety reactions
(Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970).
Both were in their late 30s, studying for business degrees, had extremely negative educational backgrounds, had significant people in their life telling them they wouldn't be able to finish, had jobs that were integral to the financial welfare of their families, and reported similar anxiety reactions
to math and tests.