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The position and topography of the apical canal constriction and apical foramen. Int Endod J.
A number 10 K file was inserted and measured until the tip of the file was just visible at the apical foramen and the working length was established by deducting 1.0 mm from this length.
Accordingly, for immature tooth with a pulp infection and open apical foramen, treatment should start with pulp revascularization and then shift to apexification if incurable, while considering the infection to be reversible.
Working length was determined by subtracting 1.0 mm from the length that a 10 K type file was first visible at the apical foramen. All canals were hand filed to a 20 K type file using full-strength sodium hypochlorite (Clorox, Oakland, CA) as a lubricant.
Because the apical foramen may not correspond to the anatomic root apex, but may be coronal to it, as the course of resorption progresses, it is advisable to maintain a working length 2-3 mm short of the radiographic working length in order to prevent overextension through the apical foramen, especially in teeth exhibiting signs of apical root resorption.
To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies that measure physiological apical foramen in premolars exclusively.
The roots were inspected using a stereomicroscope (Leica MZ75, Leica Imaging Systems Ltd., Cambridge, UK) under x12 magnification to exclude roots with anatomical irregularities, external defects, and cracks and to verify the presence of a single apical foramen that did not deviate from the apex.
Only single-rooted teeth with a single and round-shaped canal and a single apical foramen were included in the study.
The main objective of this treatment is to remove all filling materials from the canal and regain access to the apical foramen. Guttapercha, in combination with a variety of sealers, is the most commonly used material for canal filling; however, it cannot be removed completely from root canals when retreatment is required.
Viewing the base of the blocks, one could see that which would conform to the apical foramen gave an interesting perspective.
The location of the actual apical foramen in primary teeth, which are in the process of physiological root resorption, poses a great challenge to clinicians [Sim, 2004].