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Sample trees were divided into basal, intermediate and apical thirds for data analysis (Figure 2A).
Since no instrumentation or irrigation protocol can completely clean the apical third, contrary to the coronal and middle thirds, we thus decided to focus this investigation on the apical third by gathering extra measurements at 3 mm from the WL (6, 9-12).
Regardless of the retreatment technique, the bond strength was lower in the apical third.
These researchers reported smear-free dentine walls in the apical third of the canals.
In contrast, Javaheri et al (18) showed the presence of transportation towards the convex wall of the curvature in the middle and apical thirds, and towards the concave wall in the coronal third when using the HERO Shaper mechanized instrumentation system.
26) Additionally, the contribution of glass ionomer's adhesive properties in the apical third of a canal has been theorized but not demonstrated in the literature.
4): outer margin with thin and long bristles; subapical pectinate bristles; small tusk on inner apical margin; outer basal surface with thick spines; basal and medial segments of palpi of similar lengths; distal segment at least half as long as the medial segment; basal and medial segments with long, thin bristles scattered over outer margin; medial segment with long bristles; base of palpi widened and with little, thick spines; maxillary palpi articulation on the apical third of galea-lacinia.
Tainung 351 is an old cultivar and usually expresses abortion symptoms in the apical third of ears under field conditions in Taiwan.
5% sodium hypochlorite while in few cases Gates Glidden drills (Premier Dental, Norristown, PA, USA) were used at the coronal third to facilitate straight root canal access to the apical third.