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paring it down to the last appetitus of fear "that brings
In a letter to Giovanni Cavalcanti, Ficino uses a similar akousma to elucidate the notion of the human appetitus naturalis for the infinite (Op.
Et ideo habet rationem finis, nam appetitus est quasi quidam motus ad rem.
De Lubac found in Aquinas that human nature is capax Dei, whether or not God has actually offered man the real possibility for divinization; as an intellectual nature intrinsically or constitutively open to the supernatural, no other end short of the beatific vision of the divine essence could satisfy the human spirit's appetitus naturalis ad bonum universale.
In the Scholastic approach, the aspect of consciousness was on the one hand only implied and, as it were, hidden in "rationality" (this refers to the definitions, homo est animal rationale and persona est rationalis naturae individua substantia); on the other hand it was contained in the will (understood as appetitus rationalis) and expressed by voluntarius.
For this reason they were called the appetitus vindictae of humankind.
Corresponding to the apprehensive power's act of apprehending is the appetitive power's motion of appetitus or wanting, that is, of tending towards what seems good or away from what seems bad.
nihilo minus, cum in conspectu Italiae iam sit et in limine paene speculandi constitutus animadvertatque non posse in rerum divinarum cognitionem deveniri, nisi humana haec omnia contemnat, nititur ille quidem rein perficere, sed appetitus, qui nondum rationi subiectus sit, omnino repugnat falsisque argumentationibus persuadet non esse aut negligendos honore aut imperia reliquenda.
point 2: "Quid igitur opus animas substantiales brutis inserere, si calor foeni sufficiat ad onmium sensuum internorum, externorum, et appetitus operationes?
D'Arcy captures this dual aspect by translating appetitus and appetitiva as orexis and orectic.
Et similiter coaptatio appetitus sensitivi, vel voluntatis, ad aliquod bonum, idest ipsa complacentia boni, dicitur amor sensitivus, vel intellectivus seu rationalis"; ST I-II, q.
The emotions found in the appetitus sensitivus are called passiones animae.