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A form of expression consisting of a coherent set of reasons presenting or supporting a point of view; a series of reasons given for or against a matter under discussion that is intended to convince or persuade the listener.

For example, an argument by counsel consists of a presentation of the facts or evidence and the inferences that may be drawn therefrom, which are aimed at persuading a judge or jury to render a verdict in favor of the attorney's client.

An attorney may begin to develop an argument in the Opening Statement, the initial discussion of the case in which the facts and the pertinent law are stated. In most cases, however, an attorney sets forth the main points of an argument in the closing argument, which is the attorney's final opportunity to comment on the case before a judge or jury retires to begin deliberation on a verdict.


(Contention), noun altercation, belligerency, bickering, breach, clashing, conflict, contentiousness, controversy, cross-purposes, debate, difference of opinion, disaccord, disagreement, discord, disputation, dispute, dissension, dissent, disunion, disunity, division, divisiveness, feud, hard feelings, hostility, ill feeling, ill will, lack of concord, opposition, oral contention, polemics, quarrel, quarreling, strife, variance, verbal conflict, war of words, wrangle, wrangling
Associated concepts: a posteriori, a priori, apex juris
Foreign phrases: In rebus manifestis, errat qui auctoritates legum allegat; quia perspicua vera non sunt probanda.In clear cases, he errs who cites legal authorities because obbious truths are manifest and do not have to be proved. Argumentum ab inconvenienti est validum in lege; quia lex non permittit aliquod inconveniens. An argument drawn from what is inconvenient is good in law, because the law will not permit any inconvenience.


(Pleading), noun argument at the bar, counterstatement, course of reasoning, defense, discourse designed to convince, disputation, expression of opinion for or against, plea, pleading, rationale, refutation, statement of defense, statement offered in proof, statement tending to prove a point, submission
Associated concepts: argument submitted to the court, clossng argument, equittable argument, legal argument, opennng argument, oral argument, preargument statement
Foreign phrases: In rebus manifestis, errat qui auctoriiates legum allegat; quia perspicua vera non sunt probanda.In clear cases, he errs who cites legal authoriiies because obvious truths are manifest and do not have to be proved.
See also: altercation, basis, brief, conflict, confrontation, contest, contravention, disaccord, disagreement, discourse, disparity, dispute, dissent, dissidence, item, persuasion, pleading, point, reason, remonstrance, rift, thesis

ARGUMENT, practice. Cicero defines it ii probable reason proposed in order to induce belief. Ratio probabilis et idonea ad faciendam fidem. The logicians define it more scientifically to be a means, which by its connexion between two extremes) establishes a relation between them. This subject belongs rather to rhetoric and logic than to law.

References in periodicals archive ?
(4) What seems to make Massey's case is that a simple argument appears to instantiate more than one form.
Knowledge arguments derive ontological conclusions from epistemological premises.
The court will reserve the verdict after the arguments completed.
The report was prepared with the realizations that its statistical underpinnings were not perfect, that the frequency of argument varied widely within circuits, and that arriving at a consensus on how to address frequency and quality issues also could be the proverbial fool's errand.
The domain expert needs to provide at least one argument (a set of reasons) why the example's class value is as given.
Oral argument presents more challenges to the goal of controlling the issues than brief writing.
Argument 1: If the car replaced the horse and buggy, then by analogy, Segway will replace the car.
The Function Arguments dialog box is helpful when building a formula that uses one of Excels 455 calculation functions.
Elamparo added Comelec as well as herself and the other petitioners including former Senator Francisco Kit Tatad, former UE Law Dean Amado Valdez and Law Professor Antonio Contreras have yet to present their arguments.
These and other truisms reflect some of the shortcomings of appellate oral arguments. Judges may have already made up their minds, yet during oral argument they engage in what hindsight proves to be merely polite conversation about the losing party's arguments.
Also, Herring advises: "Before starting an argument think carefully about what it is you are arguing about and what it is you want.
Fred White and Simone Billings present a guide and reader for students of rhetoric and argument. It could serve as a primary text in a persuasive writing class or a secondary text where persuasive writing is important to hone.