This research aimed to explore how female students of a secondary school of Pakistan can be engaged in Argumentation
about a Socio-Scientific Issue.
316) the universalization principle is "implied in argumentation
[because] everyone who can understand an argument must in principle be able to be convinced by it simply because of its argumentative force.
However impressive it may be to establish the viability of subsuming all branches of argument evaluation into the category of meta-argumentation
, there is something more that needs to be done, namely, arguing that the strategy of seeing all argumentation
through the evaluative lens provided by meta-argumentative analysis is fruitful or desirable, and perhaps even unavoidable.
is conflict-free in the sense that the participants cooperate in arguing.
Over the three-day conference, which was held both in Arabic and English, a total of 120 research papers were presented, discussing topics on argumentation
, rhetoric and debate.
So, the explicit form, which can be treated as an argumentation
scheme will be: In this case, I have the social status S.
Kuhn (1992) conducted a study on argumentation
of 160 individuals ranging from ninth grade students through adult.
The themes in the argumentation
were build on Morgan-like metaphors such as the organism, brains and flux and transformation (Morgan, 1986).
We have therefore used the available literature on argumentation
in science education (for an extensive review, see Erduran & Jimenez-Aleixandre, 2007) to develop two instructional models that teachers can use to design a lesson that promotes and supports student engagement in scientific argumentation
: the Generate-an-Argument model and the Evaluate Alternatives model.
Inevitably, asking students to engage in argumentation
in science generates many questions.
Twenty years ago, Hans-Hermann Hoppe presented (3) the argument that no justificatory argumentation
can invalidate the principles of libertarian capitalism (4) because those principles are presupposed in every dialogue in which their validity would be questioned.
As a cognitive capacity, argumentation
is important for handling conflicting beliefs, assumptions, viewpoints, opinions, goals, and many other kinds of mental attitudes.