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Related to arteriovenous shunt: Arteriovenous malformation
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We found that ND-1 potently inhibited thrombus formation in a dose-dependent manner in an arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in rat and slightly prolonged bleeding time in a tail cutting model in mice.
Kan, "Stenosis detection algorithm using the Burg method of autoregressive model for hemodialysis patients: evaluation of arteriovenous shunt stenosis," Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, vol.
[25] mentioned that over 10% of vascular pseudolesions, such as arteriovenous shunts, show hypointensity in the hepatocyte phase and can be misinterpreted as HCC even with the combined interpretation of hepatobiliary and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI.
Effects of armagnac extracts on human platelet function in vitro and on rat arteriovenous shunt thrombosis in vivo.
(4), (5) The vein of Galen varix refers to a varicose dilation of the vein of Galen without an underlying arteriovenous shunt. (4)
Among the patients on haemodialysis having arteriovenous shunt various skin changes found are shown in Table 3.
In such children, it may be acceptable to perform partial embolisation to reduce the arteriovenous shunt and facilitate normal systemic and neurological development, even with the presence of a residual shunt.
Local angiogenesis may be stimulated by local factors (eg, local venous thrombosis, postthrombotic arteriovenous shunts, and tumor production of angiogenic factors) and augmented by systemic factors (eg, oral contraceptives, female gender, and systemic elevation of tumor-associated growth factors).
It is postulated that stenosis is the response of the venous endothelium to the rapid and turbulent flow caused by the arteriovenous shunt. (3) Stenosis of the outflow may beneficially reduce cardiac venous return, preventing congestive cardiac failure.
Many terms are used to refer to this lesion, notably, arteriovenous aneurysm, cavernous haemangioma, central haemangioma, pulsatile haemangioma, angioma, arteriovenous shunt, arteriovenous malformation.
The cutaneous manifestations related to hemodialysis are skin infections, arteriovenous shunt dermatitis, gynecomastia, bullous disease of dialysis etc.
The most common hypothesis suggested is the direct irritation of the vasculature, owing to arterial embolism, caused by the drug along with drug crystallization with the development of arteriovenous shunt and ischemia secondary to para-arterial injection.