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ARTIFICIAL. What is the result of, or relates to, the arts; opposed to natural; thus we say a corporation is an artificial person, in opposition to a natural person. Artificial accession is the uniting one property to another by art, opposed to a simple natural union. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 503.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
"When designing artificial bone scaffolds, it's a fine balance between something that is porous enough to mix with natural bone and connective tissue, but at the same time strong enough for patients to lead a normal life," said Montazerian.
The characterization of PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogel indicated that it was suitable to be used as cytokine-loaded materials to embed into artificial bone [Figure 3].[38] It can mimic the behavior of extracellular matrix to regulate the local cellular response, stimulate tissue repair, and control the release of active proteins.{Figure 2}{Figure 3}
Besides the general characteristics such as good biocompatibility and the lack of antigenicity, rejection reaction, teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, and toxicity and side effects, biodegradable polymeric composites that can be used as an artificial bone tissue repair materials also need to have other features as follows: (1) moderate degradation rate, that is, the degradation rate of the artificial bone tissue repair material must match the rate of bone healing, (2) appropriate biomechanical properties, that is, the biomechanical properties of the implanted artificial bone tissue repair material have to match the mechanical properties of the implant site [11].
This compatibility with cell growth means that, along with the strength provided by the composite structure, the new artificial bone meets the requirements for an artificial graft more fully than current options.
Scientists produce white and red blood cells from artificial bone marrow.
The three types of bone transplants are an autologous bone graft whereby a portion of a bone is taken from and transplanted within the same body, those from donor individuals to separate recipients, and those involving a supplemental element made using a artificial bone graft.
RAPID prototyping firm Unimatic is involved in a collaborative project to improve the performance of bespoke ceramic implants, to accelerate the use of artificial bone replacement to aid patient recovery from accidents.
A promising recent development involves the investigational use of a resorbable artificial bone scaffold capable of undergoing bone remodeling in lieu of the standard bone cement used in this study, according to the surgeon.
The findings of Haddon may lead to improved flexibility and strength of artificial bone, new types of bone grafts, and inroads in the treatment of osteoporosis.
Kotov has had enough success with this and materials that incorporate such celebrity substances as carbon nanotubes that a small Stillwater company, Strala Materials, is now trying to commercialize his materials for body armor, aviation equipment, and artificial bone.
Local doctors in China have recently treated 18 bone disease patients by implanting a new type of artificial bone.
This investigation was based on studies with mammals (including humans) documenting that coral skeletons may be employed as osseous substitutes, as scaffolds for direct osteoblastic application, or as an artificial bone filler for repairing bone defects [6, 7].