as shown

See: as is
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As shown in Figure 5, (X, Y) is the assumed workspace and 'a' is the coverage of each nodes.
BGP agent is attached to each AS connected with neighbor AS as shown in the figure 2.
To avoid the need for a signaling protocol, the class is marked directly on the packet, in the 6-bit DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) field [18] as shown in Fig.