Several priority claims have been attributed to Groves, including aseptic surgery
(1874),[sup.4] appendectomy (1883)[sup.3] and the use of surgical gloves (1885).[sup.3] His contributions as a pioneer in urology are less well-known.
The skin was prepared for aseptic surgery
using a septal scrub followed by a povidone-iodine wash.
Nevertheless, it took a generation for his insights, cautiously studied and refined by American doctors, to produce aseptic surgery
. By 1890, with hospital contagion no longer the deadly menace it had been just a few years before, the medical world was in the early stages of an unprecedented boom in surgery.
It marked the transition from antiseptic surgery (killing the germs that were present) to aseptic surgery
(in which the germs weren't allowed to get there in the first place).
The site was prepared for aseptic surgery
. The calf was anaesthetized with Xylazine (@ 0.03 mg/kg b.wt.) and Ketamine (@ 2 mg/kg b.wt.) intravenously and placed in left lateral recumbency.