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This formula appears with both assertory and promissory oaths and is used mostly in juridical oaths and oath notations.
Second, negative promissory oaths (promises to refrain from performing a certain act) and all assertory oaths are, by contrast, introduced simply with ki.
Fourth, Sandowicz demonstrates that, in these periods (earlier periods in Mesopotamia varied in this regard), negative promissory oaths and all assertory oaths consisted of the protases (e.g., "if I stole the sheep") of conditional statements with the apodoses (e.g., "may the gods punish me") going unstated.
Two texts mention assertory oaths that were to be sworn within "the magic circle" (ma geshurri).
One aspect of the oath texts on which Sandowicz makes little comment has to do with the function and authority of assertory oaths in trials.
Second, Sandowicz includes texts (e.g., TCL 13 132 and 133, YOS 7 22, YOS 7 152) where an assertory oath is either contradicted and overturned by unsworn testimony or where unsworn testimony appears to be accepted as equal in weight to an oath.
In contrast, there are a number of texts in Sandowicz's sample where assertory oaths do appear to play a dispositive role.