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Lam (1988) shows that individuals have an incentive to be positively assortatively matched with a partner when the production of household (public) goods requires the inputs of both partners (joint production) and negatively assortatively matched in the presence of gains to specialization.
These quantitative data reveal whether individual pollinating insects visit the flowers randomly or assortatively.
These data do not completely rule out reinforcement, because the tendency to mate assortatively could have spread from the center of the hybrid zone to peripheral areas.
Education is commonly regarded as a valuable trait in marriage by which individuals assortatively match (Qian 1998; Weiss and Willis 1997).
In addition, tomato-strain mites mated assortatively with other tomato-strain mites, although cucumber-strain mites did not show such patterns (Gotoh et al.
The species mate assortatively in the laboratory (Ridgway and McPhail 1984; Nagel 1994; Hatfield 1995), and [F.
Behavioral data collected from sympatric host populations showed that each host race exhibits a strong oviposition preference for their respective host species and mate assortatively on their respective host plant species (Craig et al.
However, Thick-billed Murres tend to mate assortatively with respect to age (Gaston et al.
A further assumption is that genes are exchanged among populations with equal probability, rather than assortatively by distance.
Increasing density correlates with increases in both social group size and the tendencies of individuals to mate assortatively, while plant patchiness may be associated most directly with group composition, and only indirectly with mate choice.