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ZOSTAVAX (Zoster Vaccine Live) is a live attenuated virus vaccine indicated for prevention of shingles in individuals 50 years of age and older.
Both a nasal-spray-delivered live attenuated virus vaccine and an injectable inactivated virus vaccine will be available.
But clinical trial testing of the inactivated and live attenuated virus vaccines already are underway, and programs for distributing the vaccines and conducting surveillance should be in place when the vaccines are ready, the officials said.
Since the vaccinator is introducing live or attenuated virus into the living body, it is his or her duty to follow the correct procedures.
In order to evaluate the duration of the immunity with a TC-83 strain attenuated virus vaccine, used in the vaccination program, 662 equidae sera samples, vaccinated at different times (194 with two years, 412 with a year and 56 with 6 months postvaccinated) without disease precedents and from different municipalities of Zulia State, Venezuela, were analyzed through an immune enzymatic assay (ELISA) to determine IgG anti VEE antibodies titles.
Through the company's research and development work, Baxter has been successful in growing wild-type virus in its vero-cell culture, which means that the company could begin vaccine production without having to wait for high-growth or attenuated virus reassortants normally used when vaccine is produced in eggs.
For instance, the orally administered polio vaccine contains attenuated virus particles and has caused polio in rare instances.
Earlier this year, FluMist became the first nasally administered vaccine available in the United States and the first live attenuated virus vaccine approved.
This vaccine is not composed of the live or attenuated virus, but is made up of synthetic proteins that were patterned after a HIV virus surface protein, gp 120, which binds to human T-cells.
The data confirm, Yoshida says, what had been reported periodically in the past--that an attenuated virus had mutated in the gut of its host, recovering much of its original "virulence.
Because the polio vaccine is a live attenuated virus that is given orally, it frequently passes through the gastrointestinal track of the infant.
Although initially these attenuated viruses were effective as vaccines, protecting the mice against further infections with lethal doses of virus, the attenuated virus eventually recovered fitness and neurovirulence after several passages on mammal cells.