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Therapeutic methods referred to modulate the activation of PMNs, such as specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (NE)-N-[2-[4-(2,2-dimethyl-1-oxopropoxy) phenyl] sulfonyl] amino] benzoyl]-(S)-glycine monosodium salt (Sivelestat) administration, [sup] macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) (one of PMN chemotactic factors) receptor knockout [sup] are seemed to attenuate the severity of VILI.
[sup], This indicated that MSC administration can attenuate the ongoing alveolar epithelial insults.
[sup], Here, this finding supported the notion that MSC might attenuate the PMN sequestration and NE release by suppressing the release of early-stage proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-a and IL-6) and PMN chemotactic factor (MIP-2).
Bone marrow stromal cells attenuate sepsis via prostaglandin E (2)-dependent reprogramming of host macrophages to increase their interleukin-10 production.
Caption: Figure 3: Fucoxanthin attenuates A[beta] oligomer-induced neuronal apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst staining.
Caption: Figure 4: Fucoxanthin attenuates A[beta] oligomer-induced increase of intracellular ROS level as evidenced by carboxy-[H.sub.2]DCF-DA staining.
Caption: Figure 6: SB415286 and U0126 synergistically attenuates A[beta]oligomer-induced neuronal loss in SH-SY5Y cells.
We have previously reported that fucoxanthin can inhibit acetylcholinesterase in vitro and attenuate scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in mice, therefore suggesting that fucoxanthin might be useful to treat AD .
Concurrent Activation of the PI3K/Akt Pathway and Inhibition of the ERK Pathway Attenuate A[beta] Oligomer-Induced Neuronal Loss in SH-SY5Y Cells.
To explore if the regulation of these signaling pathways could attenuate A[beta] oligomer-induced neuronal loss, two inhibitors were used.