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In order to use strong motion data for attenuation computations, the data need to be converted to digital form.
A finite attenuation above the critical temperature cannot be obtained due to the fact that the attenuation constant is proportional to free energy production constant D that vanishes above the critical temperature, where the order parameter is equal to zero (see (A.1)).
The path-integrated attenuation can be expressed with respect to [Z.sub.H] and [Z'.sub.H] as
The ground conductivity and Earth's curvature are the two factors affecting the propagation of electromagnetic wave over the earth surface; in our approximate method, the propagation attenuation function W in (1) is divided into two factors
The experiment mainly focused on the shock wave attenuation and bifurcation laws under a different initial pressure and distinct pipeline bifurcation angles.
Second, in heavy fog weather condition because of high attenuation RF 20 GHz can operate only 310 m where RF 60 GHz could manage only 300 m.
The attenuation factor and the phase factor are related to the dielectric properties of medium as follows [14]:
For computing the attenuation tomography, the method combines a conventional AE source location algorithm with an algorithm of tomographic reconstruction, known as a SIRT algorithm (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique).
Hence, linear attenuation coefficient, penetration depth, and exposure buildup factor were calculated as shown in Figure 5 in order to obtain the contour plot.
In [17], the power received by the instrument antennas was used to compute the attenuation due to the vegetation, as follows:
Therefore the attenuation coefficient expression in time-domain is
The filtration and using of the half-value layer (HVL) to determine the effective energy or the mono-energy level is required for more attenuation measurements.