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AVERAGE. A term used in commerce to signify a contribution made by the owners of the ship, freight and goods, on board, in proportion to their respective interests, towards any particular loss or expense sustained for the general safety of the ship and cargo; to the end that the particular loser may not be a greater sufferer than the owner of the ship and the other owners of goods on board. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7; Code de Com. art. 397; 2 Hov. Supp. to Ves. jr. 407; Poth. Aver. art. Prel.
     2. Average is called general or gross average, because it falls generally upon the whole or gross amount of the ship, freight and cargo; and also to distinguish it from what is often though improperly termed particular average, but which in truth means a particular or partial, and not a general loss; or has no affinity to average properly so called. Besides these there are other small charges, called petty or accustomed averages; such as pilotage, towage, light-money, beaconage, anchorage, bridge toll, quarantine, river charges, signals, instructions, castle money, pier money, digging the ship out of the ice, and the like.
     3. A contribution upon general average can only be claimed in cases where, upon as much deliberate on and consultation between the captain and his officers as the occasion will admit of, it appears that the sacrifice at the time it was made, was absolutely and indispensably necessary for the preservation of the ship and cargo. To entitle the owner of the goods to an average contribution, the loss must evidently conduce to the preservation of the ship and the rest of the cargo; and it must appear that the ship and the rest of the cargo were in fact saved. Show. Ca. Parl. 20. See generally Code de Com. tit. 11 and 12; Park, Ins. c. 6; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7 4 Mass. 548; 6 Mass. 125; 8 Mass. 467; 1 Caines' R. 196; 4 Dall. 459; 2 Binn. 547 4 Binn. 513; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 237, in note; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 229 3 Johns. Cas. 178; 1 Caines' R. 43; 2 Caines' R. 263; Id. 274; 8 Johns. R. 237, 2d edit 9 Johns. R. 9; 11 Johns. R 315 1 Caines' R. 573; 7 Johns R. 412; Wesk. Ins. tit. Average; 2 Barn. & Crest. 811 1 Rob. Adlm. Rep. 293; 2 New Rep. 378 18 Ves. 187; Lex. Mer. Armer. ch. 9; Bac Abr. Merchant, F; Vin. Abr. Contribution and' Average; Stev. on Av.; Ben. on Av.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
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At the same time, average down payment amounts decreased nearly 10 percent in the third quarter, falling from $52,480 to $47,265.
A New York Stock Exchange spokesman had earlier said that 'there were a number of erroneous trades' that took the Dow Jones Industrial Average down by almost 1,000 points, its biggest intraday loss since 1987, before paring the decline.
Siblings, parents, and significant others aren't terrible givers, he argues; it's the great aunts who are dragging the average down.
The 116 mineralised intersections have an average down hole width of 6.0m and an average grade of 8.7g/t gold.
Poor sales figures from US giant Wal-Mart sent the Dow Jones Industrial Average down more than 80 points in early trading, as they signalled even the strong retailers struggled in the holiday shopping season.
Out of the nine key materials used in commercial construction, three decreased drastically in the first quarter of 2008, pulling the average down to negative growth.
I need to bring my stroke average down for next year, but I feel this has been a good season for me."
helped send the Dow Jones industrial average down about 120 points Friday after posting a wider-thanexpected first-quarter loss that rekindled anxiety about the strained state of the global financial system.
Investors dumped shares after a series of poor economic and corporate reports in the United States sent the Dow Jones Industrial Average down 2.5% ahead of the weekend.
"We can meet the intent of the legislation in terms of percentage improvement, but there's no way we're going to get the fleet average down to 130g/km."
After riding the broader market slide Tuesday that sent the Dow Jones average down 416 points, newspaper stock prices stayed depressed through midday trading Wednesday.

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