Average

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AVERAGE. A term used in commerce to signify a contribution made by the owners of the ship, freight and goods, on board, in proportion to their respective interests, towards any particular loss or expense sustained for the general safety of the ship and cargo; to the end that the particular loser may not be a greater sufferer than the owner of the ship and the other owners of goods on board. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7; Code de Com. art. 397; 2 Hov. Supp. to Ves. jr. 407; Poth. Aver. art. Prel.
     2. Average is called general or gross average, because it falls generally upon the whole or gross amount of the ship, freight and cargo; and also to distinguish it from what is often though improperly termed particular average, but which in truth means a particular or partial, and not a general loss; or has no affinity to average properly so called. Besides these there are other small charges, called petty or accustomed averages; such as pilotage, towage, light-money, beaconage, anchorage, bridge toll, quarantine, river charges, signals, instructions, castle money, pier money, digging the ship out of the ice, and the like.
     3. A contribution upon general average can only be claimed in cases where, upon as much deliberate on and consultation between the captain and his officers as the occasion will admit of, it appears that the sacrifice at the time it was made, was absolutely and indispensably necessary for the preservation of the ship and cargo. To entitle the owner of the goods to an average contribution, the loss must evidently conduce to the preservation of the ship and the rest of the cargo; and it must appear that the ship and the rest of the cargo were in fact saved. Show. Ca. Parl. 20. See generally Code de Com. tit. 11 and 12; Park, Ins. c. 6; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7 4 Mass. 548; 6 Mass. 125; 8 Mass. 467; 1 Caines' R. 196; 4 Dall. 459; 2 Binn. 547 4 Binn. 513; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 237, in note; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 229 3 Johns. Cas. 178; 1 Caines' R. 43; 2 Caines' R. 263; Id. 274; 8 Johns. R. 237, 2d edit 9 Johns. R. 9; 11 Johns. R 315 1 Caines' R. 573; 7 Johns R. 412; Wesk. Ins. tit. Average; 2 Barn. & Crest. 811 1 Rob. Adlm. Rep. 293; 2 New Rep. 378 18 Ves. 187; Lex. Mer. Armer. ch. 9; Bac Abr. Merchant, F; Vin. Abr. Contribution and' Average; Stev. on Av.; Ben. on Av.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Even if all evidence points to another season of abject averageness.
It is averagely compelling (I finished it), involves an average amount of concentration and, if such a thing makes sense, is averagely well written: excellent in its averageness!".
So how can you best address this averageness to help move your own bell curve?
Bashour [10] found that there are four most important cues determining attractiveness: averageness, sexual dimorphism, youthfulness, and symmetry.
Perceived health contributes to the attractiveness of facial symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism.
"What you get with young guys is some days absolute brilliance, and other days a bit of averageness," added Broad.
Here a special role is played by the stoic idea of aurea mediocritas (golden mean, or golden mediocrity) that marked a model existence in the gentry mansion, far from urban spaces and in accordance with nature and its rythm, under the shield of "averageness" (otium).
Elsewhere, Heidegger notes that 'the everyday undifferentiated character of Dasein' is named as 'averageness [Durchschnittlichkeit]' (SZ 43) and that 'this care of averageness reveals in turn an essential tendency of Dasein which we call the levelling down [Einebnung1] of all possibilities of Dasein' (SZ 127).
The results of these investigations suggest that physically attractive faces tend to possess symmetry and averageness (i.e., they have a configuration that is close to the average configuration of a population of faces), as well as a youthful appearance and certain nonaverage sexually dimorphic characteristics (Baudouin & Tiberghien, 2004; Fink & Penton-Voak, 2002; Hume & Montgomerie, 2001; Jones & Hill, 1993; Thornhill & Gangestad, 1999).
Another rule is averageness. That may seem contradictory, but we like to choose things that are familiar to us," he told The Los Angeles Times.
"One unfinished ad could throw us into these paroxysms of self-doubt and intimations of averageness." There's an obvious echo of Wordsworth's "mortality"; successful ad campaigns raise the status of those involved above that of their coworkers, and make life worthwhile.