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Imagine a procedure in which a subject may choose between responding for food or responding for escape from ongoing aversive stimulation.
Ilinet's primary role with Hub will be the deployment of risk aversive insurance solutions for business clients throughout California.
Within the contextualist approach it is not the anxiety, sadness, and/or aversive thoughts and memories that are pathological, rather the pathology lies in the avoidance strategies (Follette, 1994; Pistorello, Follette, & Hayes, 2000; Walser & Hayes, 1998).
Contingent aversive stimuli may not sustain their stimulus presentation punishment properties due to a number of factors such as habituation of unconditioned reinforcers (Murphy & McSweeney, 2003; Holz & Azrin, 1962 ) and less than optimal values for parameters that produce an aversive condition (Azrin, Holz & Hake, 1963; Azrin & Holz, 1966; Lerman & Vorndran, 2002).
Positive reinforcement is used whenever a desirable outcome follows an appropriate response, and negative reinforcement is used whenever an aversive stimulus or state of affairs is removed following an appropriate response.
Any indication from the executive that suggests what she/he finds reinforcing or aversive, consequently, will color the entire interaction.
The amygdala coordinates early processing of the physical intensity of smells and other sensory stimuli, which are then perceived as either pleasant or aversive," contends study coauthor Noam Sobel of the University of California, Berkeley.
The third-graders with earlier bedtimes perceived a cold compress placed on the forehead as more aversive than girls with later bedtimes.
Ingestion of environmentally contaminated Lake Ontario salmon by laboratory rats increases avoidance of unpredictable aversive nonreward and mild electric shock.
The organizational implication is that policies that restrict individual freedom, allow aversive and cost/response-based behavioral interventions, allow the hiring of ill-equipped staff, or continue to promote segregation in its many forms are no longer tolerated.
All may contribute to attitudinal barriers, aversive reactions in others and social withdrawal.
ABSTRACT: Controversy continues to rage over the application of punishment of aversive procedures in treatment and habilitation.