The purpose of this phase was to ensure that the putative aversive stimulus
(the tone) functioned as a negative reinforcer.
Even though we posit that Lymnaea perceives fear with the presentation of the CS after one-trial CTA training, we cannot dismiss the possibility that the snails simply detect an aversive stimulus
and respond appropriately, with no fear involved.
Electric shock exemplifies the aversive stimulus
because it is the most common form of stimulation used in this kind of experiments.
These results appear consistent with Michael's (2000) analysis of how the function of demands may be altered from an aversive stimulus
to an opportunity for the delivery of reinforcement.
Although experiential avoidance differs in its topographical expression, this avoidance is maintained by the short-term reinforcement resulting from avoiding an aversive stimulus
primarily via negative reinforcement processes.
2010), it was found that recognition of a face previously paired with an aversive stimulus
was facilitated by the presence of this aversive stimulus
to a greater extent in CC genotype carriers of the C957T DRD2 SNP than in T-allele carriers.
The change from ah aversive stimulus
to an appetitive stimulus was the first critical step in motivating the subjects to respond to the contingency.
In this case, restraint will function as a punishment contingency only from its ability to comprise an aversive stimulus
presentation to the individual client.
Forgiveness is the reduction of conditioned aversive stimulus
or threat after a response has been made.
Learned Learned helplessness refers to a variety of Helplessness paradigms in which the animal is exposed to an inescapable aversive stimulus
1993) the high-intensity probe stimulus is clearly an aversive stimulus
which elicits a specific reflex response (eyeblink).
When an animal turns away from an aversive stimulus
, what are the underlying neurophysiological processes that extract the correct sensory information and produce an appropriate motor output?