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We could additionally demonstrate the significant growth reduction of avirulent strains in astrocytes, whereas virulent strains with a reduced Irgb6 and Irga6 loading replicated almost unaffectedly.
However, both Rs isolates used in this study retained the surface antigen 57 kDa protein and showed no antigenic differences between virulent and avirulent isolates as determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blots analysis.
Moderately virulent isolates exhibited an avirulent to less virulent reaction on resistant varieties; a less to medium reaction on tolerant varieties and a medium to highly virulent reaction on susceptible varieties.
However, the Type 4 line derived from Medea gave a higher IT to each avirulent race titan did the Sr9e line (e.g., [2.sup.-] vs.
Cultivars that possess Rk, such as CB88 and CB46, exhibit little galling and low reproduction when challenged with avirulent isolates of M.
Of these isolates, 15 (18%) contained the plasmid required for virulence in foals and 67 (82%) were avirulent.
The process of backcrossing a parent to LMPG and selecting for resistance to one or more races, particularly relatively avirulent races, appears to be particularly useful in detecting Sr genes carried by the parent, and also the presence of suppressors.
Recent studies have shown that the novel pandemic (H1N1) 2009 human influenza viruses were almost avirulent for mice (50% mouse lethal dose [greater than or equal to] [10.sup.6] PFU for A/CA/04/09 [2,3]).
sojae was used because it is virulent on Rps1-a and avirulent on Rps1-k.
burnetii exhibits antigenic variation in which the virulent variant, called phase I, shifts to an avirulent variant, called phase II.
The controls, Nipponbare, and advanced breeding lines were inoculated with avirulent M.
dendrobatidis distribution in some parts of Asia (7,8), might therefore include endemic, avirulent fungal strains in addition to recently introduced, potentially more virulent lineages.