DNA

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
2 0.10/38 0.26/59 -- 5.0/3 Table 2: Presence of different bacterial DNA in the samples of cosmic dust from the surface of ISS.
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detecting Bacterial DNA Directly from Blood of Neonates Being Evaluated for Sepsis, J Molecul Diagnost 2005; 7(5): 575-81
Bacterial DNA was extracted from the swabs by using the PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit[13].
The biotin incorporated PCR product of bacterial DNA (total 50 [micro]l) was tested in the plate according to the manufacturer instruction provided in the ELISA kit (Invitrogen-BRL-Gibco), as previously described (10).
Peter Thorne, public health professor at the UI said that their research explored a novel approach to treating mite allergy in which specially-encapsulated miniscule particles were administered with sequences of bacterial DNA that directed the immune system to suppress allergic immune responses.
To better understand the association between post-transplant microbiota and patient outcomes, the researchers collected fecal specimens from 80 patients undergoing allogeneic SCT and sequenced each sample's bacterial DNA.
(7) In clinical applications, real-time PCR for broad-range amplification of bacterial DNA offers a rapid turnaround time and a decreased risk of PCR carryover contamination, of outmost importance when using small and qualitative-poor DNA samples.
With colleagues from Baylor and Texas Children's Hospital, Aagaard analyzed 320 donated placentas, using technology that teases out bacterial DNA to evaluate the type and abundance of different microbes.
This procedure uses special probes to bind to complementary segments of bacterial DNA, which, if present, glows (fluoresces) green.
Researchers analyzed bacterial DNA from fecal samples that were collected roughly 25 years ago in a case-control study of patients with colorectal cancer.
Bacterial DNA was purified from FFPE tissue sections using a commercial kit (NucleoSpin Kit, Macherey-Nagel, Diiren, Germany) as recently described [9, 10].
These swabs were analyzed for DNA markers from more that 800 species of bacteria using bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) and the results were compared with previously identified bacterial DNA markers.