From the early fourteenth century there had in fact been two different baronages
Richard points to three factors to explain Alice's failure to recover Champagne: the erosion of her support due to concerns over her legitimacy; papal influence over local baronage
and bishops through the threat of excommunications; and, the death of her champion, Peter Hurepel, the Count of Boulogne.
Brittany was not an isolated society before, during, or after the Angevin interlude; Everard concludes that the struggles that played out there between a fractious baronage
, who wanted both local autonomy and a share in the rewards of service to powerful overlords, and the dynastic and centralizing ambitions of those overlords were typical of the twelfth century.
Ammirato argues for both "antichita" (consisting of "many degrees" or many generations of nobility) and "splendore" (baronages
, title, and dignities "in accord with our customs," which could include churchmen, such as popes, cardinals, and bishops).
Traditionally, it has been assumed that the Vespers and its immediate aftermath were evidence of a well-defined baronage
, capable of unseating the repressive Angevins and, through its parliaments, holding the Aragonese king of the island in check.
If we are determined to stand on contemporary terminology, we have to negotiate the fluctuating and unclear concept of the baronage
.(13) Some thirteenth-century barons were certainly rather insignificant figures, to mention only the least of the problems.
The belted lords and knights of Scotland, her ancient peers and baronage
The English lords themselves sank into a middle class as they were pushed from their place by the foreign baronage
who settled on English soil; and this change was accompanied by a gradual elevation of the class of servile and semi-servile cultivators which gradually lifted them into almost complete freedom.
Trickster of Liberty: Tribal Heirs to a Wild Baronage
at Petronia (1988) describes an ingenious and unconventional family.
The good women of Fouke, noble in breeding and conduct, fulfil a series of specific roles recognized and demanded by their society: they enact an ideal female lifecycle befitting their membership of the medieval English baronage
, and they exhibit the various behaviours proper to aristocratic womanhood as they progress through their life stages.
The Dering Roll dates from between 1270 and 1280 and contains 324 coats of arms, a quarter of the English baronage
of the period.
Thrupp sees the knights, esquires, and "gentils" as "an extension of the baronage
, which was directly rooted in the land system of the age [and g]entility was associated with the four military ranks of knight, banneret, esquire, and man-at-armes,..." (237, 239).