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Related to basal ganglia: limbic system, thalamus
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The indirect pathway (see Figure 3, below) increases basal ganglia output and results in reduced motor activity.
Key features of this disease include signs of encephalitis during late summer and early fall, neutrophilic cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, and abnormal neuroimaging results, including the finding of lesions in the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex.
Cerebrovascular changes in the basal ganglia with HIV dementia.
However, she added, high-field MRI with fine slices through the basal ganglia and brainstem might reveal changes at such early time points, a possibility that should be explored in a prospective trial.
Stress and activation of stress pathways in the limbichypothalamic networks affect many regions of the basal ganglia and increase the probability that abnormal movements will occur.
Inhalant and Cocaine Abusers with Subcortical Abnormalities, by Brain Region Affected Solvent Abuse (n=50) Cocaine Abuse (n=51) Basal Ganglia 11 (22%) 1 (2% Cerebellum 21 (42%) 9 (18%) Pons 20 (40%) 5 (10%) Thalamus 5 (10%) 2 (4%) Note: Table made from bar graph.
Infarction of the basal ganglia as a result of streptococcal infection may be confused with a profound asphyxial injury, but a gadolinium-enhanced MRI can highlight changes characteristic of meningitis to help make the diagnosis.
The condition is thought to be caused by a malfunction of the central nervous system, probably in those parts of the brain called the basal ganglia.
MRI, especially using higher-strength magnetic fields, may show high signals on T2 images in areas corresponding to the pathologic process, such as the basal ganglia, cortex, and periventricular white matter.
Parkinson's disease affects the basal ganglia of the brain which results in an absence of the chemical neurotransmitter needed to transmit impulses to the muscles.
Statistically significant blood flow increase in bilateral hemithalami and basal ganglia and decrease in bilateral temporal, left temporo-occipital, and right occipital lobes were observed on single-photon emission computed tomography after treatment.
Two of the most common diseases of the basal ganglia are Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD).