Energy-dependent efflux of macrolides from target cells by a cell membrane transporter has been associated with the presence of mef genes.
The increased use of fluoroquinolones has been associated with the emergence and spread of resistance to these agents (37), and local clonal dissemination of S.
* In utero exposure to valproic acid, another anticonvulsant, has been associated
with neural tube defects and heart, craniofacial, and limb anomalies (Kallen et al.
High concentrations of glucose in culture media have been associated
with decreased embryo quality, defined by cleavage rates, degree of fragmentation, and blastocyst development (Coates et al.
grahamii has previously been associated
with human disease (11), although the pathogenic potential of B.
Living or working in water-damaged buildings or as a consequence of reconstruction of water-damaged buildings has also been associated
with outbreaks of respiratory problems (8,9).
Andes, Lechiguanas, Hu39694, and Oran have been associated
with human disease, and the putative reservoirs of three of these genotypes are two species of Oligoryzomys: O.
Prospect Hill virus, an indigenous North American hantavirus, was isolated from the meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) as early as 1982 (11) but has never been associated
with human disease.
Such an increase involving deer mouse populations may have been associated
with the first recognized outbreak of HPS in the southwestern United States in 1993 (7).