These contrasts could motivate a distinction between goal and benefactive
contexts (Oh, 2010).
The examples in (7) highlight the fact that the preposition for/to realises the benefactive
dative function used in Old and Early Middle English.
21) Cook (1989: 191-92) distinguishes only five cases: Agent, Experiencer, Benefactive
, Object and Locative.
15) The Abui 'give' innovation appears to have been sourced from a benefactive
marker (meaning something like 'to do/be for X') which is reflected in several other languages, e.
PROMINENCE HIERARCHIES The Familiarity Hierarchies given > new (Table 3) (Prince 1992; Birner and definite > indefinite Ward 1998) (Table 4) (Kiss 1998) The Dominance Hierarchies The personal hierarchy: human > non-human (Table 5) (Silverstein 1976; Kiss 1998) The empathy hierarchy: 1st person > 2nd person > 3rd person (Kuno and Kabura- ki 1977) The semantic role hierarchy: agent > recipient/ benefactive
> patient > instrumental > spatial > temporal (Siewierska 1994) The formal hierarchy Short > long (Table 6) (Hawkins 1994; Wasow 2002)
13c, d) show that the requirement that the benefactive
final is added to a TA stem is morphological rather than semantic: in (13c) the underlying T is inanimate, but the benefactive
is nevertheless attached to the TA stem, rather than the expected TI stem; in (13d) the underlying T is non-specific, but, again, the benefactive
is attached to the TA stem, rather than the expected AI stem.
I washed Mary's hair'), where the benefactive
dative inherently corresponds to a possessive (Ho lavato I capelli di Maria, etc.
In the Crab wangga, the main verb nganyartedimbele contains two ordered segments: the incorporated nominal--rtedi, 'back/top surface', and the benefactive
bound pronoun--mbele, 'for you'.
Taking into account that the semantic roles of Dative/ Benefactive
are coded by the dative case and are more often animate than inanimate, in a sentence with two objects the one in the dative case would be considered a secondary clausal topic, i.
21b) and (21c) above where a benefactive
reading is implied by the IPC), and I will outline some of their properties in some more detail in the remainder of this section.
The Biblical Hebrew Reflexive is used for reflexive (he washed himself), anticausative (wisdom will vanish), benefactive
(they prayed for themselves), estimative (he pretends to be rich; he appears as a prophet), reciprocal (they look atone another), and generic passive (pains will be forgotten).
In (c) the sense of yajniya-approaches that of a gerundive, a category which may take a benefactive
dative object in the Rigveda (cf.