However, the response to both climate change and terrorism ought to be guided by the separation of powers doctrines through which both the Court and the Constitution have clearly designated a constitutional protocol for the federal government's response and exercise of lawmaking powers: bicameralism
, presentment, and a delegation of authority to agencies.
He insists on a diverse representation and "procedures for lawmaking" that are "elaborate and responsible" and that "incorporate various safeguards, such as bicameralism
, robust committee scrutiny, and multiple levels of consideration, debate, and voting." These complex institutional arrangements represent an effort to limit the power of temporary majorities.
(orgs) Senates: bicameralism
in the contemporary world.
(166.) Of course, such express delegations raise separate questions under other constitutional doctrines, such as nondelegation and bicameralism
is a powerful metaphor for thinking through the technical and political implications of I/We, human consciousness, and AI, especially if one considers the theoretical parallels to the dawn of the liberal political recognition that people--not divine rights--constitute political power.
As John Uhr notes, "bicameralism
is surprisingly under-researched and is quite under-theorized" (3) Currently "two-thirds of democratic national legislatures are bicameral" (4) and while federal countries only account for one-third of bicameral systems in the world, (5) the "model of bicameral federalism spread so widely that today all federal countries have bicameral legislatures." (6) The link between federalism and bicameralism
would suggest, though not require, the need for a second chamber in federal countries.
Ferreras, Isabelle (2012), Governing Capitalism: Economic Bicameralism
in the Firm, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Like the Supreme Court, modern and contemporary defenders of bicameralism
have nevertheless attempted (with varying degrees of success) to present those democratic deficiencies as strengths: upper houses slow down the legislative process, avoid sudden legislative changes, protect otherwise potentially underrepresented minorities, force legislators to have second thoughts, and so on.
The constitutional provision imposes bicameralism
as a way of structuring the Romanian legislative body.
In the U.S., bicameralism
and the requirement of executive assent reduce that likelihood.
The American founding fathers took Plato's critiques of democracy seriously and in Federalist papers nine and 10, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison devised institutions like the separation of powers, bicameralism
and representation to permit majority rule but at the same time protect fundamental human rights, mainly property rights.
conventional case for bicameralism
, separated powers, and a strong