To further examine any changes associated with the contact and activity of bipolar cells
, we looked at the paired PKC[alpha]/Bassoon profile which accounts for ON-rod bipolar cells
and the photoreceptor synaptic ribbon, respectively.
(2013) Independent control of reciprocal and lateral inhibition at the axon terminal of retinal bipolar cells
Awatramani et al., "Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells
restore visual function in retinal degeneration," Nature Neuroscience, vol.
Lebel et al., "The Iroquois homeobox gene, Irx5, is required for retinal cone bipolar cell
development," Developmental Biology, vol.
The scientists observed significant changes in the component of the ERG that measures the response of the bipolar cells
, supporting their earlier findings.
Skate bipolar cells
are readily identified in culture.
Activation of GABAc receptors increases presynaptic [Cl.sup.-] influx, hyperpolarizing bipolar cell
and thereby inhibiting [Ca.sup.2+] entry via L-type [Ca.sup.2+]-channels [11,21, 38].
The cones contact both depolarizing bipolar cells
(DBCs) and hyperpolarizing bipolar cells
(HBCs) through sign-inverting (−) synapses (ON synapse) and sign-preserving (+) synapses (OFF synapse), respectively.
Long arrows indicate double-labeled bipolar cells
with long prolongations situated parallel to smooth muscle fibers.
(D) Retinal explant labeling of PKC[alpha] to mark rod bipolar cells
under each experimental condition.
Previous studies showed that besides photoreceptors, Muller cells as well as depolarizing bipolar cells
are also closely associated with changes in ERG b-waves [13-17].