The relative birth rates
of Jews and Muslims is a sensitive issue in Israel as it vies to remain a Jewish and democratic state.
Author Robert Shorto cited a 2002 study by Italian, German and Spanish social scientists which showed that for the first time on record birth rates
in southern and Eastern Europe had dropped below 1.3.
"Even if birth rates
[in Germany] start to rise now, the problem will still hit in 20 years;' said the study's author, Axel Plunnecke.
Because of its high birth rate
, the West African nation of Niger (twice the size of Texas) is a very young country, with almost half its population (48.9 percent) under age 14.
* Birth rates
for women ages 35 to 39 (43.8 births per 1,000 women) and 40 to 44 (8.7 births per 1,000 women) were the highest in more than three decades.
All this will need to change in order to boost the birth rate
and female labor participation.
* The teen birth rate
fell for the 12th straight year, from 43.0 births per 1,000 teens aged 15-19 years in 2002 to 41.7 in 2003.
The effect was greatest in men exposed before age 20, who had a male birth rate
The pope is urging Italians to have more children to reverse the country's declining birth rate
That, along with tracking the birth rate
is the guiding principle for demographers.
* The birth rate
for females 10 to 14 years of age remained unchanged in 2000 with 0.9 births per 1,000.
Labor did not respond with a fully off-setting rise in the birth rate
, as Malthus had predicted, and the effect was a shift to economies in which labor is scarce and expensive and capital and energy are abundant and cheap--though that is not the way populists usually perceive them.