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Related to branchial arch: branchial arch derivatives
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Midline cleft of the lower lip is a rare congenital anomaly first described by Couronne in 1819 and was classified by Tessier as No 30 facial cleft.1 Midline cleft of the lower lip is not associated with any identified hereditary factors or gender predilection.1 Clinical presentation of these patients varies from a mild notching of the lower lip to complete midline cleavage of the inferior face, including bifurcation of the mandible, tongue and neck.2 There is occasional, associated deformities of soft tissue structures derived from the lower branchial arches seen in these patients, there may be cleavage of the neck and manubrium sterni.3
Msx appears to be critical for the differentiation of first branchial arch ectoderm-mesenchyme leading to various craniofacial structures (14).
In this present study, we were not obviously able to diagnose this patient with first and second branchial arch syndrome.
They feed, while swimming slowly with their mouths wide-open, allowing water and plankton to pass through the buccal cavity, into the pharynx and across the branchial arches, which are lined with numerous gill rakers (1260 gill rakers per gill: Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948, p.
Other noteworthy features that further distinguish the new species from most Melanotaenia include the combination of 15-16 circumpeduncular scales and 18-20 total gill rakers on the first branchial arch, both values that are relatively high for the genus compared to counts of 11-14 and 1318 respectively for most other species.
Arrest in the development of the first branchial arch due to an insult to the neural crest cells has been suggested to be the cause of this malformation, which may be induced by chromosomal mutation or teratogens (4).
With the stylohyoid ligament and the small horn of the hyoid bone, the styloid process forms the stylohyoid apparatus, which arises embryonically from the Reichert cartilage of the second branchial arch. (1,3)
Gillrakers on first branchial arch 5-9+27-31, total 33-40 (modally 8+29, total 36).
As development progresses, the second branchial arch proliferates caudally and encloses the second, third, and fourth branchial clefts creating an ectodermally lined cavity, the cervical sinus.
Histologically, it was observed that 14 individuals caught in area I had unchanged branchial arches. In this case, each branchial arch was composed of a cartilaginous structure, vascular and muscle tissue supporting the branchial filaments (Figure 1).
First branchial arch anomalies can extend deeply into the neck.
Distinguished from all other congeners by the combination of the following features: anterior portion of trunk slightly deeper than wide, jaws short, snout blunt, tip of anal fin rounded in male, caudal fin rounded in male, pelvic-fin tip not reaching anus in male, dorsal-fin origin on vertical between base of last 3rd and 4th anal-fin rays, dorsal-fin rays 7-8, anal-fin rays 12-14, frontal squamation E-patterned, frontal scales arranged circularly, canal preopercular short and opened, contact organs absent, longitudinal series of scales 37-40, gill rakers of first branchial arch 1-2 + 8, red stripes on flank, jaws not distinctively pigmented, and round black spot on dorsal portion of caudal fin in female.