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In breast muscle of chickens, the transcript abundance of HDAC2 increased significantly across embryonic periods (ED 14, 16, 18, and 21) and there were differences between all sampling stages (ED 14 to 16, ED 16 to 18, and ED 18 to 21) (Figure 1).
The analyses of the color, pH and water holding capacity in the broiler meat samples were conducted on one of the two breast muscles obtained from each animal by random selection.
Significant differences in IMF content were observed between 120 and 30 d in the breast muscles of BBOC (p = 0.031) and WBOC (p = 0.027) as well as in the leg muscles of BBOC (p = 0.001), SBOC (p = 0.029), and WBOC (p = 0.019).
Meat pH, color and drip loss: At 24 h after killing, the breast muscle pH was assessed at 2.0 cm depth below the surface using a combined glass-penetrating electrode (Ingold, Mettler Toledo, Greifensee, Switzerland).
The concentrations of total FA, C17:1, C20:1, C20:2, C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3 and total n-3 FA were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in breast muscles than thigh muscles.
Breast muscle from the right sides of each carcass was used to determine muscle pH values while the left sides was used to measure the drip loss and shear force.
Changes in the color of meat were accompanied by a better WHC of breast muscles and lower juiciness of breast (Table 6) from free-range chickens.
As Table 5 exhibits the pH and color values of breast muscle were affected by diets supplemented with GTE.
The color parameters L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) (CIELAB, Commission Internationale de L eclairage color system) were evaluated using a Minolta CR400 colorimeter (Osaka, Japan) with a D65 illuminant and a 10[degrees] standard observer on the external and underside surface (ventral) of the intact skinless breast muscles 24 h post-mortem.
In chicken, ChREBP mRNA level from high to low: liver > duodenum > kidney > pancreas > brain > spleen > abdominal fat > hypothalamus > heart > breast muscles. ChREBP demonstrated the most tissue-specific expression pattern with the highest mRNA levels detected in liver and duodenum and the lowest in heart and skeletal muscle (Proszkowiec-Weglarz et al., 2008).
Age, sex and breed of birds: The study had shown that the lightness value of the thigh and breast muscles decreases when the birds are slaughtered with increased age, but the sex of birds have no such type of effects.
This method requires a sterile needle and syringe (to avoid contamination) for vaccine injection in the thigh or breast muscles at the rate of 1 ml per bird.