However, before these autocracies evolve into full democracies, they go through anocracies, which are the least stable with weakest governing capacity because the power of the old autocratic elite begins to decline and yet the new rule of law has not been established (Marshall and Cole, 2011).As a result, before corruption can be eventually reduced when the country achieves well-functioning full democracy, corruption will be more severe and less efficient, because there are more officials to bribe and few of them are able to deliver the public goods to the briber
A better alternative, analogous to leniency in antitrust, may be a scheme open to both briber
and bribed, where immunity is awarded only to the first party that reports, while the other party will incur stronger sanctions.
Under this method, courts may have to estimate the difference between the price or the quality of goods and services provided by the briber
and the price or quality that the customer would have accepted if its agent had not taken the bribe.
Offering or giving a bribe, by contrast, involves a different dynamic: The briber
(in contrast to the bribee) normally does not have a duty of loyalty.
We would expect bribers
and judges to attempt to get around
The relative bargaining power of these groups determines both the overall impact of corruption on society and the distribution of the gains between bribers
and bribees" (p.
Lydgate concentrates on a feature of the character of a king warning the ruler against bribers
and flatterers (in the play exemplified in the figures of the soldiers, Fortitudo and Sanitas) who "...
"That's just the way they operate here," the Americans might have claimed, and quite happily gone about their business with the assistance of official bribers
. This type of motivation for the "Everybody's doing it" claim suggests that what appears to be immoral may not be immoral everywhere, in all situations.
A bidding organizer in the Kagoshima prefectural government said it has no rules covering alleged bribers
in cases for which the statute of limitations has run out.
These anthropological reports show that the public, ritualistic, and relational aspects of the gift protect society from unscrupulous bribers
Voters will not attempt to cheat their bribers
because they know their actual vote is public knowledge.
Putting a few corrupt politicians and their bribers
(the "criminal rich," as Teddy Roosevelt called them) in jail wouldn't hurt, either.