If the probability of gaining preferential treatment in exchange for bribery is unclear, or if government officials come back and demand more bribes
than originally agreed upon (Klitgaard 1990), corruption is seen as arbitrary in nature (Rodriguez et al.
The 31-year-old accused was convicted of abusing his position [formerly] at the RTA and taking bribes
to tamper with electronic transactions and issue roadworthiness certificates to failed cars.
In the survey of more than 20,000 people in 16 countries spanning the Asia-Pacific region, an estimated 900 million said they had to pay a bribe
at least once in the past one year.
Less than 1% of those polled say they have paid a bribe
to officials of the justice or education systems.
also included a $14,502 reservation for a PDVSA official at the luxury Fontainebleau Hotel in Miami, the indictment said.
Firms from non-OECD countries may not have such restraint on giving bribes
when doing business in non-OECD countries.
Our main objective is to estimate the probability of bribing across each of the four types of bribes
we observe in the data set: bribing on exams, for entrance, for credit, and on term papers.
Beginning in, or around, 2004 and continuing to 2011, I and others on the FIFA executive committee agreed to accept bribes
in conjunction with the selection of South Africa as the host nation for the 2010 World Cup.
Verifying whether a bribe
was paid entails costs which may deter reporting, hence BP works better against larger bribes
were promised, offered or given most frequently to employees of state-owned enterprises (27%), followed by customs officials (11%), health officials (7%) and defence officials (6%).
Officials from government agencies involved in processing registry documents and licenses were more likely to solicit bribes
compared with those offering other types of service, according to the survey.
Regardless of whether they took part in these bribes
, nearly half of all Ukrainians say at least one of these types of bribery is morally acceptable.