In the medical setting, whether a duty exists is also linked to the relationship of the bystander
to the patient.
McMahon, Postmus, Warrener, and Koenick (under review) evaluated a campus peer education theater program that provides bystander
education and found that after participation, students (N = 643) were less likely to adhere to rape myths and more likely to express a willingness to intervene with sexually assaultive behavior.
Armand, Dymani Edmonds, Ryan Flynn and Kyle Tarnowski presented an artistic interpretation of "Finding the Words" to become active bystanders
, punctuated by an a cappella rendition of "Lean on Me" by Karen Driscoll.
Research has found that nonhuman primates pay attention to eavesdropping bystanders
, "but this is the first demonstration that communication between mother and infant is affected by an audience," Maestripieri says.
The litigation involved the claim of bystander
emotional distress by a mother who, after hearing a crash outside her home, went outside to find her 16-year-old son lying motionless and bleeding.
In a call to action by the American Heart Association bystanders
are now advised to do compression only CPR.
The new recommendations apply only to bystanders
who come to the aid of adult cardiac arrest victims outside the hospital setting.
The baby went into cardiac arrest but the bystander
managed to administer CPR.
BYSTANDERS, VICTIMS AND PERPETRATORS: the tripartite categorization has become a cliche of historical analysis of the horrors of the past.
In a study of 4,068 cases of witnessed cardiac arrest, Japanese researchers report that twice as many people recovered without brain damage when bystanders
performed uninterrupted chest compressions instead of alternating the compressions with mouth-to-mouth breathing.
Turning to the problem of patent incentives, the article notes that impairment of patent incentives resulting from truly innocent use is likely to be minimal, but an innocent bystander
exemption from liability may nonetheless have significant adverse effects because enforcement difficulties resulting from the need to establish intent may facilitate intentional infringement.
In a video uploaded by Instagram fan page @maichardheartforever, a bystander
all of a sudden appeared from behind and punched the actress in the arm.