dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
PCR inhibitors are another source of error, and they may cause low yield of the cDNA product resulting in a weak or absent signal that is observable using agarose gel electrophoresis.
In an interview, Whitfield declined to specify how many cDNA patents his company is filing.
The ISG15 cDNA sequence of the Xinjiang Wild Argali for testing was obtained by RT-PCR, 5'RACE, and 3'RACE methods.
Cloning and sequencing of ribosomal gene RpL7 from diamondback moth RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis from deltamethrin-resistant and -susceptible strains were conducted as described above.
Alignment of amino acid sequences of SPLUNC1 cDNA against amino acid sequences from other species revealed SPLUNC1 protein shared 98.
Molecular cloning of the cDNAs encoding three somatostatin variants in the dogfish (Scylorhinus canicula).
Sequencing and sequence analysis: cDNA clones were selected randomly from the cDNA library and sequenced on an ABI 3730 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems Foster City CA USA).
Digested CD 19 cDNA was subcloned into pCMV6-Neo expression vector digested by the same enzymes.
After cloning sequencing and alignment with cDNA the length of genomic sequence was 1460 bp.
The company's SensiFASTTM cDNA synthesis kit is powered by its newly developed Reverse Transcriptase enzyme with enhanced properties and in combination with the unique TransAmp buffer.
The creation of this genome-wide premade adenoviruses collection that is readily available will benefit researchers who work with difficult-to-transfect primary cells and stem cells, as well as any other researchers who use full-length cDNA clones.
Although processed RNA can be found in nature, the Supreme Court determined that the generated (think "invented") cDNA products are not naturally occurring and do merit patent protection.