Past studies on commitment have primarily focused on affective and calculative
commitment and generally not incorporated normative commitment in their analysis (with some exceptions, e.
Figure 1 illustrates this transition at the macro level from TPM to NPM, and at the micro level from expense control to the coexistence of expense control and cost management through the integration of two calculative
tools, namely the budgeting and costing system.
Both Mudge and Derbyshire highlight some significant omissions: respectively, the importance of Keynesian economics to the expansion of the calculative
state, and that of the Virginia School of public choice to the development of 'new public management'.
Furthermore, the affective and cognitive bases of trust can also be understood from a parallel perspective of calculative
trust and relational trust (Williamson 1993; Rempel et al.
Smith points out that such conceptions based on the motif of homo oeconomicus invested with calculative
reason are fail to give an adequate interpretation to these phenomena:
The implementation of this programme in 6 PDO assets, the managing director said, has been a great success with all achieving calculative
maintenance execution status in 2013 -- an internationally recognised standard of competence and compliance.
Kejriwal made swift and calculative
moves in the run up to his resignation as Delhi chief minister.
In his philosophical work, Nietzsche (1887) argued that punishment is part of the social creation of memory and calculative
Approach - OEMs not fighting to take the "firstto-market" tag - Cautious approach amidst liability and safety issues Feature-focused Development - Focus on urban convenience aided by services like Automated Park Assist (APA) and traffic jam assist.
38) As a result, the reach of compliance-oriented practices is more limited, potentially influencing behavior in a calculative
way, but not having the kind of affect- and identity-driven reach of values-oriented ethics program practices.
He wants to become the prime minister of this country, but we want a PM who is human and who has emotions, not someone whose moves are so calculative
," he added.
They distinguish three types of commitments, namely, Moral Commitment, Calculative
Commitment, and Alienative Commitment.