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Artificial channels for the conveyance of water, used for navigation, transportation, drainage, or irrigation of land.

As a general rule, states supervise the construction and operation of canals by private canal companies. The site of the canal is selected by the state. State law determines the manner of acquiring property used for construction or maintenance of canals. Condemnation or appropriation and contract or grant are the usual methods of acquisition. Additional methods include accretion—the gradual accumulation of land by natural causes—and dedication—the gift of land to the government by its owner for public use.

The state has authority to supervise the construction of bridges over public canals. A city may build bridges over canals within its limits, but it cannot interfere with one constructed and managed by the state on its own property.

State law can confer the power to charge tolls for use of a canal. Rates can be neither discriminatory nor in excess of the amount authorized by law.

References in classic literature ?
On the Monday evening, furnace fires and clanking hammers on the banks of the canal, warned us that we approached the termination of this part of our journey.
The success of the Canal depends, of course, on the attitude of England, and I am going to lay the report of the Commissioners before the House to-morrow night.
Then I want you to say a few words to the effect that the Government is going to reconsider the question, and that you have reason to believe that the Canal, if completed, will be of great international value.
The letter you wrote to Baron Arnheim, when you were Lord Radley's secretary, telling the Baron to buy Suez Canal shares - a letter written three days before the Government announced its own purchase.
I wanted to interest him in this Argentine Canal scheme, of which I dare say you have heard.
Their places were taken by cattle, which paid for their food so well that my grandfather, getting my father to take shares in the enterprise, hired laborers on the Manchester terms to cut that canal for him.
It seemed to me that the canal lay just outside my cell.
Every time that the jailer came with my food, there was light enough to read directions written on the walls--'Side of the Palace,' 'Side of the Canal,' 'Side of the Vaults.
For me his confidences reached the proportions of tragedy; at the sight of that white head of his and beyond it the black water in the trenches of the Bastille lying still as a canal in Venice, I had no words to answer him.
MULTAN -- Irrigation Multan zone has selected 96 perennial and non-perennial canals for desiltation during the closure period 2017-18 while Rs 63 million to be spent for his purpose.
The Assembly passed a resolution asking the Balochistan Government to take appropriate measures to resolve the water crisis by involving the Central and Sindh Government ensuring regular water supply in its canals.
ISLAMABAD: The Indus River System Authority (IRSA) has decided in consultation with the provinces to close the canals for annual maintenance and desilting during the Rabi season 2017-18 to be started from December 26till January 30.