Yet another technique named "the internal to external (INT-EX) technique", described by Rao and team is a stepwise dissection technique of carotid body
tumors from the internal carotid towards the external carotid artery16.
A multicentre review of carotid body
The glomic artery supply of carotid body
tumors and implications for embolization.
Ng et al., "Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces local inflammation of the rat carotid body
via functional upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine pathways," Histochemistry & Cell Biology, vol.
The carotid body
is bilaterally located at the bifurcation of the carotid artery, which is structurally analogous to vagal paraganglia.
Normally, the carotid body
acts to regulate the amount of oxygen and carbon-dioxide in the blood.
tumors (CBTs), also known as paragangliomas, are among the tumors of neuroectodermal origin.
A 47 years old woman was found to have a carotid body
tumor in an angiographic study (Figure 2a).
Alternatively, carotid body
tumors arise medially at the bifurcations of the common carotid artery; these tumors are intimately attached to the origins of the occipital and ascending pharyngeal arteries (HUBBEN et al., 1960; DEAN & STRAFUSS, 1975).
tumors are composed by two cells types: the type I cells are the chief or paraganglionic cells; the type II cells are the sustentacular cells.
AN has also been implicated in autonomic functions such as respiratory processing mediated by carotid body
receptor (Banks and Harris 1988), suggesting that apart from the PVN, the AN also may be involved in stress-induced autonomic alterations.
The appearance was consistent with a glomus jugulare tumor with the differential diagnosis including other paragangliomas such as carotid body
or intravagal tumor, schwannoma, meningioma, metastasis, and much less likely entities such as parotid tumor or epidermoid cyst.