The formation of trabeculae in cancellous bone structures derives primarily from the epiphyseal structures and hypertrophic cartilage cells
are important for the vascularization and formation of osteoblasts in the freshly formed bone (Nilsson et al.
Researchers have been able to create cartilage cells
from undifferentiated stem cells taken from samples of bone marrow, but harvesting such cells is invasive and painful for the donor and the number of cells gained is small.
In the cartilage, FORTIGEL stimulates the cartilage cells
to increase the production of both collagen and proteoglycans--the two major components that make up approximately 90% of cartilage dry mass.
Scientists then separate the cartilage cells
from the biopsy and introduce them to the first phase of the CPT process.
Not that they haven't tried: Researchers have experimented for years with transplanting cartilage cells
It has previously been shown that mesenchymal stem cells obtained from umbilical cords, dental pulp and adipose tissue, which are all biological discards, are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, bone and cartilage cell
In brief, the implant will contain a) Bioactive molecules to recruit and retain "repair cells" (mesenchymal stem cells) from the joint fluid or released by the orthopaedic surgeon by subchondral drilling; b) Bioactive factors to promote maturation of the recruited stem cells into cartilage cells
(chondrocytes) to produce the required extracellular matrix components.
Medics at the University of Basel in Switzerland have successfully transplanted cartilage cells
from the nose to treat patients with severe cartilage damage.
The nonviable cells exhibited degenerative changes in the cartilaginous matrix and empty cartilage lacunae from which the cartilage cells
The remarkable thing about stem cells is the fact that when you inject them into a specific area of the body, they know what kinds of cells the body needs -- for example, meniscus cells or cartilage cells
were extracted from the patient's nasal septum, multiplied and expanded onto a collagen membrane.
The new procedure removes cartilage cells
surgically from the damaged knee and mixes them with specially selected donor stem cells.