On causality assessment, we have found that 87% of AEFI were indeterminate while 13% have a consistent causal association
If the findings however can be further investigated to establish a causal association
between fast food intake and the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjuncitviits and eczema, the results are of major public health significance.
The four were acquitted of all charges in December 2011, after the court concluded that there was no causal association
between the four of them and the causes of the accident.
Several mechanisms can underlie the co-existence of multiple conditions in patients; these have been elucidated by Valderas and co-workers" and include chance effect, selection bias, and causal association
. In turn, causal association
comprises 4 types:
The advocated approach is largely based on and expands upon the current advances in mediation analysis in a survival context [7, 24-26] and adheres to the effort to infer causal association
between genes and disease [27-31].
A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorised because of their causal association
with oral cancer, oral precancerous lesions, and their widespread utilisation in different parts of the world.
Following further analysis, it was concluded that reduced vitamin D levels have a modest causal association
New research reveals a causal association
between elevated body mass index (BMI) and increased risk of gallstone disease.
The researchers concluded that their results "...do not support a causal association
between Caesarean section and childhood obesity."
She says that "supplements, diet and sunlight exposure" are all influences which "should be used together, with care." Dr Lucas adds that a previous editorial called for large well designed controlled trials "to clarify the causal association
" which she believes is needed to find the magnitude of importance between vitamin D and pregnancy.
For example, the association between use of non-mainstream American English (NMAE), such as African American English, and literacy has been documented in correlational research but it is not clear that there is a causal association
. Indeed, recent research suggests that it is not NMAE use per se that is related to reading but rather the use of MAE rather than NMAE in contexts where it is expected, such as school.
If these findings represent a causal association
, the estimated odds ratios would translate to less than one excess case each of cleft lip alone and cleft palate alone for every 1,000 women using albuterol in the first trimester (Hum.